Environmental regulations will be strengthened sequentially in the future in the international shipping industry.The NYK Group ensures compliance with regulations and furthermore pursues a variety of initiatives to simultaneously realize safe vessel operations and environmental preservation.
Three Issues to Address
Environmental Regulation Trends
To ensure compliance with the various environmental regulations in effect, the NYK Group also works to research, develop, and adopt cutting-edge technologies, make the most of vessel IoT and big data, and thereby make operations and allocation procedures more efficient.
Timeline: Environmental Regulations
|SOx||General seas||Upper limit on sulphur concentration: 3.5% for all vessels||Upper limit on sulphur concentration: 0.5% for all vessels from 1 January 2020|
|ECA*1||Upper limit on sulphur concentration: 0.1% inside ECAs
(the coasts of the United States and Canada, the Caribbean Sea, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea)
|NOx||General seas||Tier II regulations|
|ECA||Tier III regulations
(ECAs in the U.S. and Canada: Applies to vessels constructed on or after 1 January 2016)
|(ECAs of Europe: applies to vessels constructed on or after 1 January 2021)|
|CO2||SEEMP*2||IMO||Applicable to all vessels|
|DCS*3||IMO||The collection and reporting of related data will be obligatory from 2019.|
|Biodiversity||The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments||IMO||Entered into force on 8 September 2017 for all vessels.|
|Hong Kong Convention (Ship Recycling Convention)||IMO||Adopted in 2009. When this convention goes into effect, each vessel, including existing vessels, will be required to keep the Inventory of Hazardous Materials (IHM) on board.|
- *1Emission Control Areas (ECAs) are ocean areas in which restrictions on air pollutants are in effect.
- *2The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) is an operational plan for improving energy efficiency on a voyage-specific basis.
- *3A data collection system is used by shipping companies to report to the International Maritime Organization on fuel consumption, voyage distances, and voyage times for all vessels of 5,000 gross tonnage or above operating internationally.
Preventing Air Pollution
The burning of fuel that contains sulphur results in the emission of sulphur oxide compounds (SOx).
IMO regulations aimed at reducing SOx emissions from vessels have come into force over the past several years.
In emission control areas in Europe, the U.S., and Canada - which are subject to even stricter regulations - the upper limit on sulphur concentration was lowered from 1.0% to 0.1%. The IMO has decided to apply stricter regulations, and is looking to lower upper limits on sulphur concentration to 0.5% at sea.
To comply with these regulations, the Group considers the optimal method for each vessel of three options: using oil that complies with the regulations (low-sulphur fuel oil), installing an SOx scrubber (system for desulphurizing exhaust gas), or converting to LNG or other fuels. To ensure a safe and smooth witch to low-sulphur fuel oil beginning in January 2020, the Group has launched an internal project for sharing information on the timing of and key points to note during the switch while also verifying the impact the compliant fuel oil will have on ship engines and preparation of stable oil supply.
Bunker oil, when burned, generates nitrogen oxide (NOx) compounds, which are greenhouse gases.
International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations aimed at reducing vessels' NOx emissions have been in effect for several years, with the Tier II requirements becoming effective from 2011.
Furthermore, in the ECAs of the U.S. and Canada, vessels constructed on or after 1 January 2016 must comply with Tier III requirements. And in the ECAs of Europe, vessels constructed on or after 1 January 2021 must comply with Tier III requirements.
Preventing Global Warming
SEEMP (Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plans)
This requirement related to reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from ships was adopted in July 2011 and requires all vessels to retain a SEEMP on board.
Every vessel makes Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plans before the start of each voyage.
Vessels operate accord to the SEEMP and review the plan after completing the voyage.
A SEEMP is one of the tools to carry out the PDCA cycle for efficient operation.
DCS (Data Collection System)
A data collection system (DCS) for the reporting and certification of data, such as fuel consumption, has been adopted, and will include existing ships.
The collection and reporting of related data will be obligatory from 2019.
EU- MRV (Monitoring, Reporting, Verification) has been adopted.
This regulation lays down rules for developing a Monitoring Plan and submitting an Emissions Report for ships, regardless of the flag of the shipping country, that arrive at or depart from ports under the jurisdiction of an EU member state. Monitoring has been begun from 1 January 2018.
Ballast Water Management Convention
The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (Ballast Water Management Convention), was adopted by the IMO (International Maritime Organization) in 2004 to prevent harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens from cross-border transfer.
This convention covers all vessels, including existing vessels, and entered into force on 8 September 2017.
When this convention goes into effect, each vessel will be required to have a Ballast Water Management System installed.
To minimize industrial accidents and environmental pollution when ships are dismantled, the IMO adopted a ship-recycling convention in 2009.
With a view to the convention's entry into force, countries worldwide are progressing towards ratification.
When this regulation enters into force, all vessels will be required to keep the Inventory of Hazardous Materials (IHM) on board. The IHM indicates the location and volume of hazardous materials on the vessel.